Vitalität kleiner romanischer Sprachen

(1) Sprachstatus gemäß UNESCO

  safe language is spoken by all generations; intergenerational transmission is uninterrupted >> not included in the Atlas
vulnerable most children speak the language, but it may be restricted to certain domains (e.g., home)
romance items:
definitely endangered children no longer learn the language as mother tongue in the home
romance items:
severely endangered language is spoken by grandparents and older generations; while the parent generation may understand it, they do not speak it to children or among themselves
romance items:
critically endangered the youngest speakers are grandparents and older, and they speak the language partially and infrequently
romance items:
extinct there are no speakers left >> included in the Atlas if presumably extinct since the 1950s
romance items:

(2) Sprachstatus gemäß Ethnologue

Table 1 . Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Sc

0 International The language is widely used between nations in trade, knowledge exchange, and international policy.
1 National The language is used in education, work, mass media, and government at the national level.
2 Provincial The language is used in education, work, mass media, and government within major administrative subdivisions of a nation.
3 Wider Communication The language is used in work and mass media without official status to transcend language differences across a region.
4 Educational The language is in vigorous use, with standardization and literature being sustained through a widespread system of institutionally supported education.
5 Developing The language is in vigorous use, with literature in a standardized form being used by some though this is not yet widespread or sustainable.
6a Vigorous The language is used for face-to-face communication by all generations and the situation is sustainable.
6b Threatened The language is used for face-to-face communication within all generations, but it is losing users.
7 Shifting The child-bearing generation can use the language among themselves, but it is not being transmitted to children.
8a Moribund The only remaining active users of the language are members of the grandparent generation and older.
8b Nearly Extinct The only remaining users of the language are members of the grandparent generation or older who have little opportunity to use the language.
9 Dormant The language serves as a reminder of heritage identity for an ethnic community, but no one has more than symbolic proficiency.
10 Extinct The language is no longer used and no one retains a sense of ethnic identity associated with the language.

Table 2 . Alternative labels for other special situations

Level Label Description
5 Dispersed The language is fully developed in its home country, so that the community of language users in a different country has access to a standardized form and literature, but these are not promoted in the country in focus via institutionally supported education.
9 Reawakening The ethnic community associated with a dormant language is working to establish more uses and more users for the language with the results that new L2 speakers are emerging.
9 Second language only The language was originally vehicular, but it is not the heritage language of an ethnic community and it no longer has enough users to have significant vehicular function.

Table 3 . Official recognition categories and definitions

Function

Definition

Example

Statutory national language

This is the language in which the business of the national government is conducted and this is mandated by law. It is also the language of national identity for the citizens of the country.

Bengali [ben] in Bangladesh
Indonesian [ind] in Indonesia
Spanish [spa] in Spain

Statutory national working language

This is a language in which the business of the national government is conducted and this is mandated by law. However it is not the language of national identity for the citizens of the country.

English [eng] in Uganda
Swedish [swe] in Finland
English [eng] in India

Statutory language of national identity

This is the language of national identity and this is mandated by law. However, it is not developed enough to function as the language of government business.

Kituba [mkw] in Congo
Maori [mri] in New Zealand
Rarotongan [rar] in Cook Islands

De facto national language

This is the language in which the business of the national government is conducted but this is not mandated by law. It is also the language of national identity for the citizens of the country.

Standard German [deu]in Germany
Japanese [jpn] in Japan 
Tswana [tsn] in Botswana

De facto national working language

This is a language in which the business of the national government is conducted, but this is not mandated by law. Neither is it the language of national identity for the citizens of the country.

Brunei [kxd] in Brunei
Tagalog [tgl] in Philippines
English [eng] in Eritrea

De facto language of national identity

This is the language of national identity but this is not mandated by law. Neither is it developed enough or known enough to function as the language of government business.

Ganda [lug] in Uganda
Jamaican Creole English [jam] in Jamaica
Tokelauan [tkl] in Tokelau

Statutory provincial language

This is the language in which the business of provincial government is conducted and this is mandated by law. It is also the language of identity for the citizens of the province.

Hawaiian [haw] in the United States
Slovene [slv] in Italy
Assamese [asm] in India

Statutory provincial working language

This is a language in which the business of the provincial government is conducted and this is mandated by law. However, it is not the language of identity for the citizens of the province.

Afar [aar] in Ethiopia
Bosnian [bos] in Croatia Mende [men] in Sierra Leone

Statutory language of provincial identity

This is the language of identity for the citizens of the province and this is mandated by law. However, it is not developed enough or known enough to function as the language of government business.

Maithili [mai] in India 
Rotokas [roo] in Papua New Guinea 
Walloon [wln] in Belgium

De facto provincial language

This is the language in which the business of the provincial government is conducted, but this is not mandated by law. It is also the language of identity for the citizens of the province.

Yue Chinese [yue] in China
Welsh [cym] in United Kingdom
Hausa [hau] in Nigeria

De facto provincial working language

This is a language in which the business of provincial government is conducted, but this is not mandated by law. Neither is it the language of identity for the citizens of the province.

Greek [ell] in Albania
Central Kurdish [ckb] in Iran

De facto language of provincial identity

This is the language of identity for citizens of the province, but this is not mandated by law. Neither is it developed enough or known enough to function as the language of government business.

Adamawa Fulfulde [fub]in Nigeria
Khinalugh [kjj] in Azerbaijan
Northeastern Thai [tts] in Thailand

Recognized language

There is a law that names this language and recognizes its right to be used and developed for some purposes.

New Zealand Sign Language [nzs] in New Zealand
Mamara Sénoufo [myk]in Mali
Kandozi-Chapra [cbu] in Peru

Provincially recognized language

There is a law at the provincial level that names this language and recognizes its right to be used and developed for some purposes.

Plains Indian Sign Language [psd] in Canada
Valencian Sign Language [vsv] in Spain

Language of recognized nationality

There is a law that names the ethnic group that uses this language and recognizes their right to use and develop their identity.

Lisu [lis] in China
Puma [pum] in Nepal

0.0.1.  

Simons, Gary F. & Fennig, Charles D. (2017): Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twentieth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. http://www.ethnologue.com.

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